Pakistan is one of the diversified countries of the world in terms of its culture, landscape, and climate. To the north of Pakistan is the highest mountain system of world, having its tough climate. To the west are the fertile plains of Indus valley. While to the western and southern part exist the steaming deserts. Within its borders situate the Arabian Sea, best root of Asia; this sea moderates the climate of its southern parts. Pakistan is the 36th largest country in the world in terms of area with an area covering 881,913 sq. km (340,509 sq miles). Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre (650 miles) coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman. Its population in 2015 was over 191 million. Pakistan is an agricultural country. Its major exports include the agricultural products like cotton, sugar, rice and textile.
The territory that now constitutes Pakistan was previously home to several ancient cultures, including the Mehrgarh of the Neolithic and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation, and was later home to kingdoms ruled by people of different faiths and cultures, including Hindus, Indo-Greeks, Muslims, Turco-Mongols, Afghans and Sikhs. The area has been ruled by numerous empires and dynasties, including the Indian Mauryan Empire, the Persian Achaemenid Empire, Alexander of Macedonia, the Umayyad Caliphate, the Dehli Sultanate, the Mongol Empire, the Mughal Empire, The Durrani Empire, the Sikh and British Empire.
In this way, there were a great civilization lived in the Indus valley named as the Harappa which are totally Indus Valley civilized people, they built great cities, inspiring even by today’s standards. It is also called as one of the initial known civilizations easily rivalling the Egyptian or Babylonians in both technology and present standard of world. The most well-known of their cities are Mohenjo daro (sindhi – Mound of the Dead) evidence of modern city planning, architecture and construction.
In 19th century, tourism industry becomes the major contributor to its national GDP. People from all
over the world come to visit Pakistan. The Northern areas of Pakistan have a great attraction for foreign visitors as it is famous for its mountain areas with some of the highest peaks in the World.
Gilgit-Baltistan, formerly known as the Northern Areas of Pakistan is the northern most administrative territory of Pakistan. It borders Azad Kashmir to the south, the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa to the west, the Wakhan Corridor of Afghanistan to the north, Xinjiang, China, to the east and northeast and Jammu and Kashmir to the southeast. Northern areas are comprised of 10 districts. At the last census (1998), the population of Gilgit-Baltistan was 870,347 however the estimated population Gilgit-Baltistan in 2013 is over 2 million. The population of Gilgit-Baltistan consists of many diverse linguistic, ethnic, and religious sects, due in part to the many isolated valleys separated by some of the world’s highest mountains. People of the region live in rural communities and their source of livelihood is subsistence agriculture. However after the construction of Karakorum Highway (KKH), this area has been opened for the outer world. Due to its natural beauty and rich cultural heritage, this part of the world attracts thousands of mountaineers, trekkers and general tourists from around the world. Gilgit-Baltistan is home to five of the “eight-thousanders” and to more than fifty peaks above 7,000 metres (23,000 ft). Gilgit and Skardu are the two main hubs for expeditions to those mountains. The region is home to some of the world’s highest mountain ranges. Amongst the highest mountains are K2 (Mount Godwin-Austen) and Nanga Parbat, the latter being one of the most feared mountains in the world.
Three of the world’s longest glaciers outside the Polar Regions are found in Gilgit-Baltistan: the Biafo Glacier,the Baltoro Glacier and the Batura Glacier. There are, in addition, several high-altitude lakes in Gilgit-Baltistan:
• Sheosar Lake in the Deosai Plains, skardu
• Naltar lakes in the Naltar Valley, Gilgit
• Satpara Tso Lake in Skardu, Baltistan
• Katzura Tso Lake in Skardu, Baltistan
• Zharba Tso Lake in Shigar, Baltistan
• Phoroq Tso Lake in Skardu, Baltistan
• Lake Kharfak in Gangche, Baltistan
• Byarsa Tso Lake in Gultari, Astore
• Borith Lake in Gojal, upper Hunza, Gilgit
• Rama Lake near Astore
• Rush Lake near Nagar, Gilgit
• Kromber Lake at Kromber Pass Ishkoman Valley, Ghizer District
• Barodaroksh Lake in Bar Valley, Nagar
• Ghorashi Lake in Ghandus Valley, Kharmang
The Deosai Plains, are located above the tree line and constitute the second-highest plateau in the world at 4,115 metres (14,500 feet) after Tibet. The plateau lies east of Astore, south of Skardu and west of LAdakh. The area was declared as a national park in 1993. The Deosai Plains cover an area of almost 5,000 square kilometres (1,900 sq. mi).
Gilgit-Baltistan is home of diversified cultures, ethnic groups, languages and backgrounds. It is home to people belonging to all regions of Gilgit-Baltistan as well as other areas of Pakistan. Major Cultural events include Shandoor Polo Festival, Babusar Polo Festival Jashn-e-Baharan and Harvest Time Festival (Navroz).